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Ταξιδεύω Ελλάδα Travel to Greece путешествие в Грецию

Greek History


Greece Travel Guide|Ancient greece

The western civilazation is build on the Greek culture

The first evidence of human life in Greece dating from the Paleolithic period between 120000-10000 BC However, the early development of Greek culture found in the Neolithic period, around 7000 - 3000 BC Many ruins and tombs of this period have been discovered in Thessaly, Macedonia and the Peloponnese. The first urban idryontai during the Bronze Age (3000-1100 BC) Evidence of these have been found throughout modern Greece, for example, in the northeastern Aegean, the Cyclades, Crete and mainland Greece .

During the Minoan period in Crete (approximately second millennium BC), a more streamlined and more organized society with a great civilization developed specifically in this area. The first writings were discovered and started the commercial and cultural contact between the Minoans with peoples from Eastern Mediterranean. This led to an exchange of ideas and culture which not only established as part of the Minoan civilization, but it spread and influence of cultures, religion and governments around the islands and mainland Greece. At this time, Crete was the main exporter of jewelery, specialized craft projects, oil and wine, and a large importer of food and raw materials. During this period in Crete developed the first large merchant fleet.

This situation continued until about 1500 BC when the tragic destruction of Crete was the result of the eruption of the volcano. The Mycenaeans, based on mainland Greece was able to take advantage of this collapse of Cretan-Minoan civilization and establish themselves as a leader throughout the Aegean during the last centuries of the second millennium BC Their cities, Mycenae, Pylos, Tiryns, Thebes, Iolkos, Athens, became the centers of huge bureaucratic Kingdom. In this period of Mycenaean civilization Greeks consolidate their power. Our societies are based in the elite class of war Chiefs. The Mycenaean civilization flourished about four hundred years. The cities of the Mycenaeans were big and strong, art and agriculture flourished and there was great prosperity. However, unlike the earlier Minoan societies, wealth was not distributed amongst the population. As a monarchical society, kings were those who eichansyssorefmeno the wealth of society and spent heavily in battles, campaigns and invasions.

This continued until about 1200 BC, when the power of the Mycenaean kings began to fall and by the 12th century BC their dominance had already collapsed - considered by some to result from the invasion of Dorian tribes from Northern Greece. Alternatively, it is considered that the Mycenaean power weakened and eventually overthrown by other groups of the Mycenaean population who then settled in many areas formerly controlled by them.

After the Mycenaeans, was a long period of economic and cultural stagnation that lasted from 1150-900 BC about. This dark era, however, ended with the advent and beginning of the Greek Renaissance, known as the Geometric period (9th-8th century BC). The Greek city-states were formed and there was a major development of the arts. The Homeric epics and Greek alphabets were created during these years of enlightenment. The Archaic period followed by the 7th-6th century BC saw fundamental political and social change. The Greek city-states began establishing colonies in North Africa to the south, the Black Sea to the north and west in Italy, France and Spain.

This was the beginning of the classical period. The 5th-4th century BC Athens dominated both politically and culturally. During this period dimiourgeithike what is called the "golden age of Pericles." Science, theater, sculpture and architecture and philosophy mainly know a tremendous advance. During the golden age built the Parthenon and other masterpieces of sculpture and architecture. The Greek philosophy I reach the peak with philosophers like Plato, Aristotle, Anaxagoras, Zeno etc. Great dramatists like Euripides, Sophocles, Aristophanes create immortal works, and great sculptors and architects as Phidias, Iktinos, Praxiteles create monuments and statues that will remain forever as the masterpieces of classical Greek culture.

The decline and loss of sovereignty of Athens is at the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404 BC The 4th BC century saw the development of the Macedonians as a new force in the Greek world. Philip II, king of Macedonia and his son Alexander played a leading role. In 388 BC The eighteen Alexander led the cavalry Makedoniko to victory in the battle of Chaeronea. After the assassination of his father Philip in 336 BC, during the campaign to free the Greek states of Asia Minor from the Persians, there was unrest among the Greeks and Macedonians in Thebes.

Alexander conquered Thebes and, as a warning to other Greeks destroyed the city, leaving only their temples standing. Greeks and Macedonians finally join forces and led by Alexander conquered Persia, Egypt and areas to the Indus River. This huge empire radically changed the political and cultural situation in the then known world.
After the early death of Alexander at the age of thirty three or vast empire was divided among his generals and despite the fact that the political entity that was created was discontinued, his legacy was a single economic and cultural world that stretched from the Straits of Gibraltar to Indo river in India. This season onomazeta Hellenistic period (3rd-1st century BC) the Greek city-states had lost their position in power and prestige, but remain independent and self tous.Kata the Hellenistic Age sciences and the arts know heyday.

In 146 BC, Greece was conquered by the Romans and the country is absorbed by the expanding empire. The occupation of Greek territory by Rome was not entirely negative, his admiration of Greek civilization from the Roman emperors were great and there was respect and admiration for the Greek cities, mainly Athens. Rome is generally influenced by Greek culture to the point that today we talk about the world Elinoromaiko culture created during afti.O Apostle Paul in the first century BC played a key role in the spread of Christianity throughout Greece. In the 4th century AD Constantine the Great decided to defer the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to Constantinople. This shift in the eastern part of the Empire heralded the beginning of the Byzantine period in Greece.

For a thousand years, the Byzantine Empire was one of the most powerful military, economic and cultural forces throughout the empire took Europe.e Greek character and Greek language became the official language of the vast Byzantine Empire. During this period flourished in the religious architecture, music and iconography. Magnificent churches and monasteries were built in many regions of the state, culminating in the church of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. The beginning of the fall of the Byzantine world began in 1204, when Constantinople was conquered and looted by the Crusaders. Areas of Greece freely given to Western leaders, while coastal areas and many islands were occupied by the Venetians. The restoration of the Byzantine Empire became in 1262 only to dissolve again by the Turks, culminating in the complete destruction in 1453. This period of Greek history saw the conquest of Greece by the Ottoman Empire, which begins with the conquest of Constantinople in 1453, followed by the capture of Athens in 1456 and, during the decade 1460-1470, of Achaia, Peloponnese, Evia and Mystras. Crete was the last area of ​​Greece that will be occupied in 1669.

The Ottoman kyriarcheia in Greece lasted four hundred years until the Greek Revolution (1821-1829). Greece was the first country that managed to secure its independence from the Turkish occupation. After a long period of wars and bloody conflicts in 1830, the independent Greek kingdom has now formed, which finally ratified the Treaty of Constantinople in July 1832. This kingdom, however, covers all areas of modern Greece. The struggle for the liberation of all regions of Greece continued until the end of World War II. The Ionian islands were incorporated in 1864, followed by parts of Epirus and Thessaly in 1881.

In 1913 during the Balkan wars and under the leadership of the great Greek statesman Eleftherios Venizelos, Macedonia, Epirus and East Aegean included followed in 1919 from Western Thrace. It was however a more complex integration process on the island of Crete. The final step toward independence began in 1898 and continued until 1913, when Crete united with Greece at last. The last was the Dodecanese group of islands in Greece entachtheike 1948. During the Second World War 1940-41, Greece was one of the few countries that resisted for so long against the Axis forces. The war was declared on October 28, 1940 and finally completely conquered Greece in June 1941 with the capture of Crete.

Due to its strategic position as a natural boundary between Europe and East and West, Greece has always been considered a vital area. In 1952, Greece joined NATO. On April 21, 1967 a coup by a group of colonels led the military dictatorship in Greece until 1974. In July 1974, a referendum resulted in the rejection of the constitutional monarchy and establishing the current Presidential Parliamentary Democracy. Since 1981, Greece is a member of the European Union. Evidence of a long and turbulent history of Greece can be seen throughout the mainland Greece and the islands. Countless archaeological sites, museums and collections of objects from the prehistoric, ancient, classical, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine periods, ancient temples, theaters, monasteries, castles and other buildings and monuments in every region of Greece remind us of the greatness of our country.